Thursday, December 20, 2012

AMA Huma webcast for prelim

Title:  Introduction
This module will present the meaning, scope, and importance of humanities including  their meanings, purposes, functions and principles of art.
Objectives of the Lesson
At the end of the lesson, you should be able to:
1.    define the meaning of humanities, arts, man and society;
2.    discuss the nature of art;
3.    identify and explain the functions  of art.
1.    recognize the importance of art in our lives
The word humanities has different implications in different historical periods. Its roots are from Latin word humunus meaning human, cultured or refined. By the term humanities, we generally mean art, literature, music, theatre, areas in which human values and individual expressiveness are celebrated.
Arts according to Webster is “human ingenuity in adapting natural things to man’s use.”  It is therefore understood that an artist uses his intelligence in transforming God-made things into man-made things that satisfy his needs.
For example, he converts a plant into paper, cloth and medicine, or a piece of wood as religious image, pieces of furniture. Later on, he can convert these items as painting  or sculpture.
The word Art originally comes from the Aryan root word “ar” which means “join,” or “put together.” From the Greeks, the word  Art  is artizein, meaning “to prepare” . Latin terms are, artis means everything that is artificially made or composed by man. The word art is often used to describe the visual arts, which consists of painting and sculpture; the performing arts like music, dance, film and theatre; the literary arts which includes poetry, short story and novel; and the industrial art which coverts architecture. Combined arts or mixed arts are a combination of two or more basic arts like dance, drama and film.
Art came from the word “ars” which means “skills”. It is synonymous to cunning, artifice, and craft.Skills emphasizes technical knowledge and proficiency; cunning suggests ingenuity, expertness; artifice means mechanical skill especially in imitating things in nature; craft means finesse in workmanship.
The following are all involved in art: couturiers (clothes designers), coiffeurs (hairstylists), chefs, wine connoisseurs (wine tasters), perfume experts, dancers, actors, writers, sculptors, architects, tattooists etc.

Art, which is an important component of humanities, takes life for a subject matter, with man as its main component. It relates to almost everything that surrounds man today, other people and other times. As such, it is a powerful record of everything human that evolve through the ages.
Nature of Art
            It is a common feeling that art is found only in museums, galleries and concert halls and accessible only by those who can afford to pay for its enjoyment or to students and teachers who view the artworks for academic purposes. Actually, art is everywhere. It is very much a part of our life. Though we want to ignore it, we really can’t.
            We find arts in the garments and accessories we wear, in the designs of houses built for us, in the furniture and furnishings we own, in the styles of vehicles we use, in the melody and sound of the music we hear, in the different food delicacies that we savor and the   rhythmic movement of the dance we want to perform. We find arts in our homes and in our community, in our school, in our church, in commerce, and industry.

Art is a human activity that promotes enjoyment and satisfaction to us viewers and it lessens the drabness and weariness of everyday life. The doer of these “artworks” is called the “artist” and he produces his works with great skill because his intention of creating his works of art is to share them to others to satisfy their aesthetic interest.   Their skills are manifested in the way we appreciate and enjoy the beauty of the designs of our T-shirts done by the creative designers, the lyrics and tune of our most loved songs composed and arranged by talented musicians,  the presentation and taste of our favourite food prepared by well-trained chefs and the designs and features of our latest gadgets assembled by the skilled technicians. It is pointed out here that art is concerned with the expression of man’s thoughts and emotions as beautiful or not beautiful.
From the definitions above, there are four (4) common important points of art:
 (1) art is a product of man;
(2) art is creative;
(3) art is shared to satisfy others; and
 (4) art is expressed in different styles through certain media that enable the artist to communicate his idea and feelings to his viewers or recipients.
      The views of art considered in this lesson give us the feeling of value and appreciation of the beautiful things created by man and in many ways has influenced our behaviour. That art is a very influential factor in transforming us in a more-dignified , respectable and refined human beings. The arts delight humanity. This is the reason why the arts are called humanities. They bring the good and noble in us and strengthen our desire to learn and understand the real meaning of life.
      It is said that art appreciation is looking at a certain  piece of work and seeing what it evokes in you (Chaudhari, 2011). Chaudhari said further that “what the artist wants to say is not so important but what is actually being said to you” by the artwork matters. Art Appreciation is about your high regard  and your meaningful recognition to the creation of man and how you enjoy them.

Basic Assumptions of Art

1.    Art has been created by all people at all times, in all countries and it lives because it is well-liked and enjoyed. Art is timeless and universal

Example; Homer’s “Iliad” and “Odyssey”

1.    Art involves experiences and that there can never be appreciation of art without experience, the actual doing of something. Experience is the first and last demand of art. Unless one knows the work itself, has experience of it, he knows little.

1.    Art is not nature; nature is not art. We see, and hear only what there is in nature; the artists open our eyes and ears to see nature more clearly and to provide new visions and interpretations of life.

Purposes of Art

1.    It creates lucrative jobs and earns money.
2.    Ways to express man’s thoughts and emotions (real or imaginary)
3.    produce things of beauty (architectural designs)
4.    For self actualization (poets, sculptors)
5.    For self immortalization (painters paint themselves, writers write about themselves)
6.    to persuade others (propaganda writers)
7.    to entertain people (paintings, buildings, performance( in dancing, play etc)
Title:  Introduction
This module will present the meaning, scope, and importance of humanities including  their meanings, purposes, functions and principles of art.
Objectives of the Lesson
At the end of the lesson, you should be able to:
1.    define the meaning of humanities, arts, man and society;
2.    discuss the nature of art;
3.    identify and explain the functions  of art.
1.    recognize the importance of art in our lives
Functions of Art

The functions of art are corollary to its purposes:

1.    Personal and Individual Function
Art is used for self expression. It is man’s passion to create new things. It is a form of enjoyment.

2.    Social Function
Man is a social being, and as such, he associates with his fellow beings.  This is evidenced by choral singing in religious rites and other social practices, working with his fellowmen in building a house, hand down the works of literature into the next generation, performing on stage to entertain others.

3.    Economic Function
Many people believe that there is no money in arts. However, this has been overcome by some artists like J.K. Rowling, the author of the Harry Potter series, the writers of famous stories played on staged and movies,  Singers like Elvis Presley, Michael Jackson, Marin Nievera, Sharon Cuneta and other singers who have made millions from singing, paintings of Michaelangelo and Leonardo are now worth millions.

4.    Political Function
Political leaders use their functions to promote art like former First lady and governor of Metro Manila Imelda Marcos who promoted the arts by building the Folk Arts Theater, Cultural Center of the Philippines, staging famous and classical plays in them.

5.    Historical Function
Historical figures and events have been recorded in the form of paintings, buildings, sculpture, poems, short stories and even plays. Examples: Pyramids in Egypt, the Taj Mahal in India, the Edsa Shrine, the heroes monuments, cenaculo (passion play) etc.

6.    Cultural Function
Buildings, pieces of furniture, clothes form parts of our material culture. Non-material culture includes: music, drama, literature.

7.    Religious Function
Religious activities like worship of gods, in the form of songs and dances. Paintings and sculptures in olden times were of gods and goddesses.

8.    Physical Function
Houses and building are contracted for people who occupy them.  Columns are used as posts, paintings are used as walls or ceilings,  dance as a form of exercise, music to soothe the feeling of the listener and singer etc.

9.    Aesthetic Function
Artworks are to beautify.  Paintings are used to decorate homes and offices, tall buildings are sights to behold, art designs, costumes, settings, dance performances, acting and song renditions are not only realistic but also appealing to the audience.

            Art Style and Factors Affecting Style
            Every artist has his own way of presenting his work. Such is called art style. His style is affected by the following factors: geographical, historical, social, ideational, psychological, technical, political and economic.

Geographical Factors. The place where the artist stays influences his works. Examples: Eskimos in Alaska live in igloos, in Hawaii reside in grass shacks because their place is tropical, in Romblon, they have marble structures because marbles are plenty in their place.

Historical  Factors. Historical events influence the artists work. Example: Jose Rizal’s Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo have highlighted the events that took place in the Philippines during the Spanish regime, Les Miserables of Victor Hugo depicts the French Revolution, theSpolarium of Juan Luna expressed the Filipino expression by the Spaniards.

Social Factors. Social relationships affect artists, too. Ben Jonson was influenced  by a lady named “Celia” in his poem “Song to Celia”, Francesco Petrarch wrote poem for his lady love named Laura. Present-day realities in the Philippines influenced the films “Kubrador” and “And Pagdadalaga ni Maximo Oliveros”

Ideational Factors.  Ideas from other people influence the artists’ work. Nudism is a study that can about because of the idea that the body is the most beautiful to present as an art. Sigmund Freud, a psychologist, influenced the surrealist painters.

Technical Factors. Techniques influence the artists’ style.  Different strokes, brushes and other equipment affect style.

Psychological Factors. The psychological make-up of the writer affects his style so much. His unfortunate childhood may be manifested in his painting, his poem, his sculpture etc.

Political Factors. Politicians and government officials sometimes exert influence on artists. Example: Lopez Jaena, Jose Rizal etc wrote satires and mockeries because of the political influences.

Economic Factors. The availability of financial and other resources plays an important role in the life of an artist. A movie producer who has enough budget in film making produces a better film than those who have problems in financial resources. An abstract painter may shift to realism if his painting does not sell.

Judging a Work of Art

Judging a work of art is like solving a problem. Not all works are significant and acceptable. An artist who is sensitive and creative, and genius, is distinct in putting his ideas into artistic forms through words, pigments, notes or any other forms. He creates and re-creates what he has created only to express his thoughts and feelings with richness and meaning.
In the process of his creation, there three phases which the artist has to explore: the idea of the problem to illumine the lives of humanity, the material he uses to display or express his feelings, and the form and organization from where the response of the viewer or listener comes.
The basic premise is that art has rules too, yet not as definite as can be but given the creation and vital uniqueness of the artist’s expression. The viewers have to look, to listen, read and understand for only then could art bring new meaning and wonder to their lives.

            The measure of art and everything that moves man to action implies deep compassion, a love for beauty and an understanding of life. Man reaches out for a dream; achieves and employs it because he cares; he loves, he thinks, he feels. The measure of human is to know and be able to touch the heart and reach out to other beings by sharing them an understanding of life.
            For to live is to suffer and to suffer is to survive and in man’s survival is attached the realization that man is designed to have the widest and fullest understanding of his physical, intellectual, moral and social environment.
            This is the objective of Humanities. Man’s love of the creation given by god, love his fellowmen, his God and himself.

Classification of Arts
Arts whose  mediums can be seen and which occupy space.
Categories: This includes:
A. Two dimensional arts such as :
- painting, drawing, printmaking and photography
B. Three-dimensional arts such as :
-sculpture, architecture, landscaping, community planning, industrial design and crafts of ceramics and furniture making.
At any rate, all these arts appeal first and foremost, though not exclusively, to the sense of sight, and the artifact is an object in the visual medium.
Auditory Arts ( Music)
Arts whose mediums can be heard and which are expressed in time.
This includes music in all its forms but not song, opera, and those arts that combine music with literature. Just as the medium of visual art is sight, so the medium of auditory art is sound.
In auditory art there is—unlike visual art—no physical object (other than the score, which as has been seen is not the music). There is only the temporally successive series of sounds: sound waves emanating from the various instruments. While no such tones are being emitted, no sounds exist; only the musical score exists (and the memories of listeners, some of whom might enable the score to be reproduced if it were lost), from which music can be reproduced. Unlike the existence of paintings and sculptures, the existence of musical sounds is intermittent. In what sense, then, does the music exist between performances? It exists only in the sense that it is reproducible from the written score.
Verbal arts/ Literary Arts  ( Literature)
The art of literature is clearly different from both visual and auditory art. There are sound values in poetry, particularly when read aloud, but literature as sound alone would be the most poverty-stricken of arts. What makes the sounds of poetry effective is (at least 99 percent) knowledge of the meanings of the words heard. Listening to the sounds of a poem or play uttered in an unfamiliar language gives some idea of the importance in literature of knowing the meanings of the words. Note that “murmuring,” one of the most pleasant sounding words in English, has almost the same sounds as “murdering.” It is almost exclusively a knowledge of word meanings that makes it possible to appreciate the art of literature.
Nor is literature a visual art, although it is customary to read works of literature from a printed page. A critic who said, “I think this poem is a bad one, because it is written in unpleasant small type in double-column pages on yellowed paper,” might be giving advice to typesetters and book designers (these two groups are engaged in the practice of visual arts), but he would be saying nothing about the merits of the poem. The printed or written word or for that matter the spoken word is only a vehicle for the meanings. Literature, then, must be placed in a separate class from either auditory or visual arts.
2. Drama
3. Opera
4. Movies / Films
Other arts variously combine the above three types of arts; this group includes all the arts of performance. Drama combines the art of literature (verbal art) with the visual arts of costuming,stage designing, and so on. Opera combines the art of music (its predominant component) with the art of literature (the libretto) and the visual arts of stage design. Dance combines the visual spectacle of moving bodies (the principal component) with musical accompaniment, sometimes with accompanying words and often with stage design. Song combines words with music. Themotion picture combines the visual component (a series of pictures presented in such rapid succession that they appear to be moving) with the verbal component (the script) and usually an intermittent musical background as well.
Differences in the arts related to mediums
Very significant differences among the arts occur because of the differences in their mediums:

 Medium in art refers to the material or means which the artist uses to objectify his feeling or thought. It refers to the substance the artist uses to create his or her artwork.
 For example, the medium Michelangelo used to create David was marble, Calder's stabiles employ painted steel plates and Duchamp's infamous Fountain had porcelain as its medium.
Far more commonly, you'll see notations following the titles of paintings that read along the lines of:
 "Gouache on paper"
"Tempera on board"
"Oil on canvas"
"Ink on bamboo"
 A medium in art may refer to one of two definitions. A medium may refer to the type of material used to create artwork. In this sense, no limits exist on what defines an art medium. Traditional media, as well as any found objects used to create a piece of artwork, are considered an art medium. Another definition of medium in art refers to substances added to different paints to achieve a desired texture or effect. In either case, many options exist which you may wish to explore in creating your original artworks.

The Artist and His Medium
o    Artist’s choice is usually influenced by the availability of the material
o    Artists select the material he can handle well
o    Medium can  influence  the quality of work
o    Each medium has inherent limitations and potentials
o    Instances where artist had no choice of medium is when he/she has a patron
The Artist and His Technique
Technique is an artist’s knowledge of his medium and his skill in making in achieving the artwork   and what he wants it to be.  It is in the use of technique that  artists  differ from a craftsman.
The artist objectifies an original, imagined design and in the process of making his material, he exploits every possibility that the medium offers, never really knowing his work will turn out until it is finished.
Originality is what distinguishes an art from a craft.
 A Craftsman follows the dictates of the designer and is concerned exclusively with the manipulation of the material in order to produce the kind of product that he is expected to turn out
 Craftsman unlike artist is not free to innovate. He is a mere copyist, using technique as an end in itself. Artist uses technique as a means to an end
The mediums of art
In the context of every work of art there are three items to consider:
1. The genesis/ origin  of the work of art.
2. The artifact, or work of art, which is a publicly available object or thing made by the artist and viewed by the audience.
3. The effects of the work of art upon the audience.
The first item comprises all the artist’s mental states, both conscious and unconscious, in the creation of the work, including his intention with regard to the work, as well as all the factors that led to these states of mind: for example, the spirit of the age, the socio-economic conditions of the times, his exchange of ideas with other artists, and so forth.
The experiences undergone by the artist in the creation of the work constitute the artistic experience.
The second item is what is usually called the work of art itself. ), the work of art exists only in the mind of the artist, and the physical artifact then counts as an effect of the work of art.
The third item includes all the effects of the work of art upon those who experience it, including both aesthetic and non-aesthetic reactions, the influence of the work of art upon the culture, on the state of knowledge, on current morality, and the like. The experience that involves the observer’s attention to the work of art for its own sake and not for the sake of some ulterior end is called aesthetic, but of course art has many effects that are not aesthetic. The aesthetic experience belongs to the consumer of art, as opposed to the artistic experience, which belongs to the creator of art.
Every work of art occurs in a medium; that is, there is some physical object or series of events by which the work is communicated to the recipient (listener, observer, reader) by means of his senses.
The Mediums of Two Dimensional Visual Arts
1.    Photography
A type of visual art medium that shows the actual likeness in the actual world. However, its production may not involve the artist’s creativity. In photography a photosensitive surface is used to capture an optical still image, usually utilizing a lens to focus light.
 Photography is drawing or writing with light.
 Digital image sensor

1.    Choosing a Subject
2.    Mechanical / Digital Medium
3.    Chemical / Digital  Process
        2. Painting
is the process of applying pigment on a smooth surface – paper, cloth, canvas, wood or plaster to secure an interesting arrangement of forms, lines and colors.
In painting, "media" refers to both the type of paint used and the base (or ground) to which it is applied. A paint's medium refers to what carries a paint's pigments, and is also called a "vehicle" or a "base". A painter can mix a medium with solventspigments, and other substances in order to make paint and control consistency.
Common paint media
o    Acrylic paint
o    Encaustic paint-
o    Fresco
o    Gesso
o    Glaze
o    Gouache-
o    Ink
o    Latex paint
o    Magna paint
o    Oil paint –
o    Primer
o    Stencil
o    Tempera or poster paint -
o    Vinyl paint (toxic/poisonous)
o    Watercolor
Common bases for painting
o    Canvas
o    Cloth
o    Glass
o    Human body
o    Metal
o    Paper
o    Wood
Application tools and methods
o    Aerosol paint
o    Airbrush
o    Batik
o    Cloth
o    Palette knife
o    Sponge
o    Stick
1.    1.    Encaustic
            It is a form of painting in a medium that combines dry pigments with heat-softened wax and, in modern times, resin. The purpose is to fuse the pigment to the surface, thus, producing a highly durable finish. The Greeks and the Romans dealt with this painting. Encaustic painting was the most common method in Early Christian time (250-600). Notable examples include the Virgin and Child Enthroned in the Monastery of St. Catheirne on Mount Sinai, Egypt.

One of the early mediums which is the application of a mixture of hot beeswax, resin and ground pigment to any porous surface followed by the application of heat to set the colors and bind them to the ground.. When the surface cools, it is polished with a cloth. This gives the wax a soft luster that heightens its translucent quality.
Egyptians, Greeks and Romans used encaustic to paint portraits on coffins.

1.    2.    Tempera
            It is a method of painting on a wooden panel with color dissolved in water and tempered or mixed into a paste, with egg, casein, gum or a glycerine solution. The process of painting in tempera is the oldest method of painting known; the wall paintings of ancient Egypt and Babylonia, and the Mycenaean period in Greece were probably executed in tempera with a medium of egg yolk, to which a little vinegar was sometimes added.
The disadvantage of tempera is the difficulty in blending colors as it dries up so quickly that it is impossible to fuse the strokes or alter them.

Tempera paints are earth or mineral pigments mixed with egg yolk and egg white. Since the paint dries quickly, corrections are difficult to make. Thus, the artist using this medium must plan his design well.

1.    3.    Fresco
Fresco, which is an Italian word which means fresh, is a method of painting with watercolors on plaster, while the plaster is still wet, or fresh. This method is the most universal. This term is also applied to the painting executed in this manner.
The ancient painters knew fresco such as the Egyptians, Cretans and Greeks.
Fresco painting reached it speak in the 16th century, with the supreme achievements of Raphael in the Vatican Palace and with The L:ast Judgment and Genesis frescoes by MNaichaelAngelo in the Vatican Sistine’s Cahpel 9Gardner, 1932).
The colors of fresco are usually thin, translucent, and light, often with a chalky look.

            4.    Watercolor
            The earliest true watercolors  in painting were used by Albrecht Durer, a 15th century German master, who finished his pen drawings of natural subjects with watercolour.
            In art, it is a type of painting with pigments dissolved in water. The distinguishing characteristics of watercolour painting is its translucency, the surface of the paper is visible through the thin watercolour pigments, creating a vell-like effect that is quite different from the thickness and opacity of oil painting and other pigments in a densely textured medium.
            Watercolor paints are produced by binding dry powdered pigment mixed with gum Arabic, a gum, obtained from acacia trees, that solidifies through evaporation but which is soluble in water.  Solid watercolour can then be dissoluble in water and applied to paper with a brush. This medium depends for its effects upon its freshness and spontaneity.
 5.    Gouache is paint in which the pigment has been mixed with a chalklike material. This material makes the paint opaque. Also spelled guache, is a type of paint consisting of pigment, a binding agent (usually gum arabic), and sometimes added inert material, designed to be used in an opaque method
 6.    Oil
Oil painting refers to the art of applying oil-based colors to a surface to create a picture or design. The technique was popularized by the Sicilian painter Antonello de Messina.  However, oil painting was once thought to be invented by the Flemish painter Jan van Eyck in the early 15th century. This technique was believed to have fully exploited by the Renaissance painters. The wide acceptance was quick  and overwhelming because it is easier to work with ; tones are easy to match, blend or grade, and corrections are easy to make.  The artist has the freedom to express himself in his work . This medium provides limitless opportunity to the artist but the disadvantage of oil as a medium is that it is not possible to paint a less oily pigment over an oily one. All the paint should be of the same oiliness throughout.
Once the painting has dried, it can be varnished to protect it from dirt and to enrich the color. The varnished used over the painting should be removable as it could be replaced once the previous varnish darkens.
7.    Acrylic
Synthetic paints using acrylic polymer emulsions as binder are the newest mediums and the ones that are widely used by today’s painters
1.    They combine the transparency and quick drying characteristics of watercolor and the flexibility of oil
2.    Completely insoluble when dry
3.    They can be used in almost any  surface
4.    They can be applied thinly with a water-dipped brush
5.    Unlike oil, acrylic do not tend to crack, turn yellow or darken with age
1.    8.    Mosaic
Mosaic is the art of creating figurative or geometric designs by embedding into cement small pieces of glass, stone, terracotta, or other suitable materials. Mosaics in their classic form were made from small pebbles and later of cub-like pieces of marbles, hard stone, glass or dice.
Mosaic decoration is best suited to large or plane surfaces; effective on floors, interior and outside walls, vaults, and ceilings. Mosaic was an art form from especially well-developed by the Romans and used extensively in Byzantine buildings and in Italian churches.
Many ancient mosaics survived because the materials used in mosaics are relatively resistant to deterioration. They retain the same brilliance today than they had when they were originally made.

1.    9.    Stained Glass
The earliest European pictorial stained glass dates from the 19th century, through it is known only from written records. The earliest surviving fragments, depicting the heads of Christ form Lorsch Abbey in the Rhineland and Wissembourg, Alcase (France), have been previously dated from the 9th to the 11th century. The technique of coloring glass was known in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Translucent colored glass objects were molded after a thousand years. Translucent colored glass used to compact designs in window, uses a technique similar to mosaic, the pieces of glass held in strips of cast lead and mounted in a metal framework. Stained glass depends for its effect on light being transmitted through the translucent glass, thus the art is known as painting with light.

Stained glass developed as a major art when it appeared as a major art as important part of Gothic cathedral.

1.    Enlivened the tomblike interiors and introduced a bright and warm perspective
2.    For religious instruction and catechism likes scenes from the Bible and  lives of
Example of best stained glass in the Philippines:
- Sto. Domingo Church in Quezon City
10. Mediums of Drawing
1.    Pen and Ink drawings –precisely controlled and uniformly wide lines
2.    Chalk pastel – held together with gum binder and compressed with sticks
3.    Charcoal – representing broad masses of light and shadow
4.    Crayons – pigment bound by wax and compressed into sticks
A graphic image that results from a duplicating process.
The technique of printmaking involves the preparation of a master image on a plate made of wood, metal or stone from which the impression is taken.
12. Mural Painting
            Mural, Latin, murus, wall refers to the decoration of walls or ceilings by various techniques. It may be purely decorative or may be executed for religious or didactic purposes. It is very often used to decorate the inner walls of public buildings, particularly churches, and tends to portray religious, historic or patriotic themes significant to a public audience. A characteristic of mural painting is its large scale. It is also closely allied to architectural and decorative schemes, and can be used to emphasize or enhance interior design, or transform it, giving the illusion of different spatial dimensions.
            Mural painting is a very ancient art form. It is found on the walls of prehistoric caves, most notably those in Alta NMira, Spain, and at Lascaux in southwest France, and forms an important spect of Paleolithic art.
Muralists use many of the same media as panel painters, but due to the scale of their works, use different techniques. Some such techniques include:
o    Cartoon
o    Comics
o    Fresco
o    Graphic novel
o    Overhead and slide projection
            The first representations of identifiable individuals date from the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt around 3100 BC. During the Old Kingdom (3100BC-2500BC), as Elgen (1962) indicated. This type of portraiture flourished, especially in the funerary representations of pharaohs and nobles.
            It is a from pf representational art focusing on particular individual subjects. For most of the history of art, the main focus of portraiture has been the visual representation of individual people, distinguished by references to character, social position, wealth, or profession. In a broadest definition, portraiture can include representations of animals favored pets or prize-winning livestock or even representations of dwellings. In this discussion, portraiture refers only to images of people.
            Portraiture as a medium can be done in any medium, including sculpted stone and wood, oil, painted ivory, pastel, encaustic wax on wood panel, tempera on parchment, carved cameo, and hammered or poured metal.

Crayon / Chalk
 In art, mixture of chalk and a binding medium, such as wax or oil, are used for drawing on paper. The two terms crayon and chalk, however, are used interchangeably. Chalk occurs naturally in tones of black, white, or red, and these are traditional colors for chalk or crayon drawings. Crayon has been used as a drawing from earliest times. In modern times, Leonardo de Vinci was one of the fist masters to use black and red crayon together. The use of the three basic colors together called trios crayons technique reached its peak in the 18th century work of French artist Antoine Watteau.

Illuminated Manuscripts
            This method can be seen in the form of calligraphic codices, or hand-drawn scrolls and books, enhanced by artists with decorations and painting. This term is usually applied to medieval illuminated manuscripts that are embellished and illustrated in various ways. Illuminations are called miniatures; the term is derived from the Latin minimum red lead, the pigment once used to mark the opening words of the text. It does not refer to the diminutive size of the painting.
            Paints for manuscript illumination were made from pigments of earth substances, red, yellow, brown or from natural deposits of metal orange, red and brown or from stones, such as lapis lazuli for blue.  Azurite for blue and malachite for green came from metallic ores, but blue was also extracted from wood and indigo plants. White came from lime, lead or aches of burned bird bones; yellow came from a sulphide or arsenic. Pigments were ground to powder and fixed to the parchment with glair beaten egg whites allowed to stand until sufficiently liquefied to flow easily from a brush.

Related Techniques
 Many techniques other than those described earlier are associated with painting.

Collage – In which the artist assembles the actual materials like cloth, newspapers, etc. into a form; the materials used have associated significance to the artist;

Ceramics – In which various tiles, china, pottery, or porcelain grounds are painted;

Tapestry – In which the design is woven with colored and metallic threads into a warp that is usally thin; tapestry is originally woven by hand;

Pastels – which are pigments in the form of powders, compassed lightly into sticks;

Acrylic – an oil-compatible contemporary medium, and can be thinned with water, linseed oil, or turpentine. This means that it is possible to “erase” portions of a painting and rework it. The vehicles of acrylic are plastic which results to luminous colors;

Graphic Arts – which involves printing processes such as relief, Itaglio, planographic, and stencil as classified by Bergen and Eby (1989).
 Relief painting. This is the oldest method of printmaking.  For centuries, the basic technique of relief printing has consisted of cutting away certain parts of the surface of a block of wood so as to produce a printing surface in the shape of the desired image.

Intaglio Printing. This printing is the opposite of relief printing; instead of standing proud of the surface, the lines of the image are cut or incised into a metal plate.

Planographic Printing. The image is created directly on the surface of a stone or a metal plate without cutting or incising it.

Stencil/ Monotype. A stencil is a cutout with open and closed areas. The easiest way to create a stencil is to cut the desired image into a sheet of stiff paper; the design appears as an open space with solid areas around it.  The completed stencil is then placed over a fresh sheet of paper, and paint is brushed over the surface.

 Body Art
            The art in which the human body, which may be that of the artist or of another person or people, is the work of art or the medium of expression.

            It is the practice of making decorative or functional objects, wholly or partly by hand, and requiring both manual and artistic skill. The term crafts refers to objects made in this way.

 Clay Terms
Ceramics – making objects from clay
Firing – clay exposed to heat hardens in a process called firing
Potter – a person who works with clay Earthenware – fired at a relatively low temperature and is porous after firing
Stoneware – fired at a high temperature and is not porous
Porcelain – fired at a high temperature, rare, non-porous, first developed in China

 Mediums of Three Dimensional Visual Arts
1.    1.    Sculpture
2.    2.    Architecture
3.    3.    Landscaping
4.    4.    Community planning
5.    5.    Industrial design
6.    6.    Crafts like furniture making and ceramics

1.    1.    Sculpture

Sculpture – is the art of making figures, such as human forms, animals or geometrics that can either be standing freely or attached to a background frame; either single or in group.

When it can stand freely, it is called three-dimensinal or free-standing sculpture,  where the viewer can go around the figure and gaze it at different angles. The different parts of the figure: front, back, and side are all exposed to the viewer.

When the figure is mounted to the background, which may either be a frame, a wall or a flat surface, it is called a relief sculpture. In high relief sculpture, the frame is embossed or raised above the surface of the background. In low field sculpture, the figure is raised only a little from the background, as in the case of coins.

1.    Free-standing or sculpture in the round which can be seen from more than one position. This is also termed as statuary.
2.    Carved in Relief  project from a flat background
3.    Mobiles – a kind of kinetic sculpture made of strips of metal, glass, wood or plastic arranged with wires and hung where they can be moved.
 Traditional Methods in Sculpture

1.    1.    Carving
2.    2.    Modeling
3.    3.    Casting
4.    4.    Fabrication

Materials/ Medium of Sculpture

1.    Wood
2.    Stone
        -granite and basalt
   3. Ivory

   4. Metals
     - bronze
    -aluminum and lead
5. Plaster – burned limestone
6. Clay –used for ceramics
7. Glass
8. Plastic
9. Ice
  2.    Architecture
Architecture is the art of designing and constructing a building which will serve a definite function, ranging from providing the simplest shelter to meeting the technological demands of our modern cities.
            In the course of its history, painting has taken several major forms, involving distinctive media or techniques.
 1. Realism  -  An attempt into describing or to represent figures and objects exactly as they appear in life. Art was to be accessible to the masses and should serve a social purpose. Popular subjects included images of workers in the fields or factories, glorifying portraits of Stalin and State figures, historical scenes of the Revolution, and idealized depictions of domestic life. This art of painting was proclaimed by Gustave Courbet, a French painter.
-the attempt to portray the subject as it is. Realists try to be as objective as possible.
 2. Abstraction - the attempt of the artist to show only his idea or his feeling; not as objective as the realist.
Abstract Presentation
1.    DISTORTION - clearly manifested when the subject is in distorted condition or twisted out
2.    ELONGATION – is when the art subject is lengthen, protracted or extended
3.    MANGLING – is rarely used by artist today. Here, the subject is either cut, or mutilated.
4.    CUBISM – stresses abstract form through the use of a cone, cylinder or sphere at the expense of other pictorial elements. The use of geometrical shapes is common in Pablo Picasso &
Cubism – became the most influential of all 20th century art style emphasizes the flatness of the picture plane, or surface, and rejects traditional perspective, foreshortening, modelling and chiaroscuro of dark and light.
In painting, cubism is primarily concerned not with lifelike representation but with the depiction of subject-matter by breaking its form down into basic geometric shapes; by overlapping or interlocking these shapes. Cubist painters also attempted to depict objects from many angles not simultaneously visible in reality but arranged so as to form a unified composition.
Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso developed cubism and  Paul Cezanne art works.

1.    Abstract Expressionism - This is also known as action painting. The abstract expressionists derived an interest in the subconscious, symbolism and myth. The Abstract Expressionist movement is centred in New York and is also known as the New York school. Action painters were concerned with paint texture and consistency and the gestures of the artist, while color-field painters gave their works impact by suing unified color and shape. Jackson Pollock was a distinctive action painter.
-          is a style that is characterized by the use of large canvasses and a deliberate lack of refinement in the application of the paint, strong color, uneven brush strokes and rough texture.

1.    3.    Symbolism – In the visual arts, it refers to the use of certain pictorial convention pose, gesture, or a repertoire of attributes to express a latent  allegorical meaning in a work of art. It refers to the movement that began in France in the 1880s, as a reaction both to romanticism and to the realistic approach implicit to impressionism. It was an international ideological trend that served as a catalyst in the development away from representation in art and towards abstraction.
- the use of a visible sign of an idea to convey to the viewers, readers or audiences the message of his work

1.    4.    Fauvism – This s a movement that revolutionized the concept of color in modern art. The Fauvists rejected the impressionist palette of soft, shimmering tones in favour of the violent colors used by Paul Gauguin and Vincent Van Gogh for expressive emphasis. They achieved a poetic energy through vigorous line, simplified yet dramatic surface pattern and intense color.  Technically, the Fauvist uses high key colors in painting and such colors dazzle the viewer. Henri Matisse was a leader in this kind of painting.
-          the artist use of bright colors which shows pictures of comfort, joy and pleasure

1.    5.    DADAISM – is a protest movement in the art that is playful and experimental. “Dada” means a “hobby horse”. Dadaism is most often nonsensical. Marcel Duchamp is the famous painter using this method.

1.    6.    Impressionism – This is a movement in painting that developed in late 19th century France in reaction against the formalism and sentimentality that characterized the academic art of that time. The Impressionist movement is considered the beginning of the modern period of art.
The impressionists were concerned with the depiction of reality not through the exact rendering of form but through capturing the effects of light; they believed that light tends to diffuse the outlines of form and to reflect in shadows the colors of the surrounding objects.
Edouard Manet is sometimes called the first impressionist. The tem impressionist was first used by the journalist Claude Monet entitled Impression: Sunrise 1872, Musee Marmottan, Paris.
– this method presented the artist’s impression on the art subject, not as detailed as a realist painting.

1.    7.    Futurism – this is an early 20th century movement in art pointedly rejected all traditions Art of producing aesthetically appealing handmade  objects
and attempted instead to glorify contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing its dominant themes, the machine and motion. Futurism tried to show movement and speed which the futurists considered the essence of modern civilization.
Umberto Boccioni led the Futurist movement.
-          developed in Italy about the same time as cubism appeared in France. Futurist painters wanted their works to capture the mechanical energy of modern life.
1.    8.    Surrealism – Surrealism grew directly out of Dada, an art and literary movement reflecting nihilistic protest against all aspect of Western culture. Like Dadaism, Surrealism emphasized the role of the unconscious in creative activity, but it employed the psychic unconscious in a more orderly and serious manner. The following artists are connected with Surrealism: Paolo Uccello, William Blake, Odilon Redon and Michael S. Bell.
-          this method mirrors the evils of the present society. Surrealism means super realism, influenced by Freudian psychology which emphasizes the activities of the subconscious state of the mind
1.    9.    Expressionism – Artists in both France and Germany shared an interest in the art of indigenous people.  It is a movement or tendency that strives to express subjective feelings and emotions rather than to depict reality or nature objectively. Expressionists are inspired by the boldness and power of indigenous art. The artist is not concerned with reality as it appears but with its inner nature and with the emotions aroused by the subject. To achieve this, the object is often caricatured, exaggerated, distorted, or altered in order to express the emotional experience in its more intense and concentrated form.
-          are art works describing pathos, morbidity chaos or even defeat. Introduced in Germany from 1900 – 1910.
10. Pointillism/Divionism  - It is a method of painting in which small, closely juxtaposed dots or strokes of pure color are deposited on the canvas. Seen from a distance at which they are mixed by the eye, these points produce the illusion of a solid field of color and give an effect of heightened luminosity.
George Seurat, the founder of Neo-Impressionism, systematically developed the technique

1.    11.  Constructivism – Vladimir Tatlin, a Russian sculptor and painter, founded constructivism. Its name is derived from the construction of abstract sculptures from miscellaneous industrial materials such as metal, wire and pieces of plastic.  Constructivism stood for the ideals of abstraction, functionalism and utilitarianism

12. Neo-Plasticism – This is a movement which was dedicated to abstraction to its further limits and aimed to create a universal response from all viewers based on a quest for harmony and order. It carried out the radical simplification of  composition and color, with areas in pure primary colors blue, red, and yellow combined with straight lines in black, gray and white. The style is also characterized by having plane surfaces and austere lines, related to Cubism.
Piet Mondrain and Theo van Doesburg developed Neo-plasticism.

13. Minimalism – A type of art in which forms are reduced to utmost simplicity and composition restricted to geometry so as to preclude the emotional engagement of the viewer with the ultimate aim of making form, space, color and materials the essence f the painting or sculpture. It is a movement that presents the ugliness of a painting not its beauty.

Process of Creation
Methods of Art Production

1.    Subtraction
The carving of stone and wood is an example of this
process. The artist using his chisels, hammers, and other
tools, deducts parts from the medium to form a designed
image with perfect lines and angles
2.    Addition
The construction of a figure by putting together bits of clay
or by welding together metal parts to create an image is

3.    Combined Materials
This method happens when a combination of small pieces
of materials such as plastic or moist dry clay is worked and
modelled into desired form which may then be subjected to
intense heat to produce a ceramic known as terracotta.
Wire, rods and plates may also be combined by soldering
or welding.

Ditulis Oleh : guapz88 // 11:26 PM


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